About Richard L. Crocker

 Born February 17, 1927 in Roxbury Massachusetts, Richard received his PhD from Yale University in 1957 with a dissertation on “The Repertoire of Proses at St Martial de Limoges (Tenth and Eleventh Centuries),” directed by Leo Schrade.  Richard taught History of Music at Yale from 1955 until 1963, and in the Music Department of  the University of California at Berkeley from 1963 until his retirement in 1994.  In 1967 his article “The Troping Hypothesis” was awarded the first Alfred Einstein Prize of the American Musicological Society, and in 1978 his book The Early Medieval Sequence received the Society’s Kinkeldey Prize. Richard contributed to the project of Anne Draffkorn Kilmer on a Hurrian cult song from 1400 BCE (“the oldest song in the world”). He published books and articles on medieval music, eventually concentrating in his retirement on singing and recording the entire early repertory of Gregorian chant. Published as A Gregorian Archive. A Study Edition (2009), these recorded performances are included complete on this website.


Books, Articles, Recording Projects 

A History of Musical Style. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. Reprinted  New York: Dover, 1986.

Listening to Music. With Ann P. Basart. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1971.

The Early Medieval Sequence. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1977

Gradual Psalms, Alleluia Verses, and Tracts for Year C. The Church Hymnal Series, series 6, part 3. The Episcopal Church: Standing Commission on Church Music, 1982.

The Early Middle Ages to 1300. Edited by Richard Crocker and David Hiley. The New Oxford History of Music, 2nd edition, vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990; Richard contributed  the chapters on Liturgical Materials of Roman Chant; Chants of the Roman Office; Chants of the Roman Mass; Medieval Chant; French Polyphony of the Thirteenth Century; and Polyphony in England in the Thirteenth Century

Studies in Medieval Music Theory and the Early Sequence. Aldershot: Ashgate/Variorum, 1997.

An Introduction to Gregorian Chant. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

A Gregorian Archive. A Study Edition. Sung and recorded by Richard Crocker (578 chants on 22 CDs). Berkeley: Emeritus Press, 2009.

Richard contributed to:

Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, Richard L. Crocker, Robert R. Brown. Sounds from Silence. Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music.  Berkeley California: Bit Enki Publications, 1976

 Richard edited:

Bjork, David A. The Aquitanian Kyrie Repertory of the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries.  Aldershot: Ashgate,  2003.


“The Repertory of Proses at Saint Martial de Limoges in the 10th Century.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 11 (1958): 149–64.

Musica rhythmica and Musica metrica in Antique and Medieval Theory.” Journal of Music Theory 2 (1958):     2–23.

“The Place of Musical Style in the Teaching of Theory.” American Music Teacher 10/5 (1961): 8.

“Discant, Counterpoint, and Harmony.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 15 (1962): 1–21.

“Pythagorean Mathematics and Music.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (1962–63): 325–35.

“Aristoxenus and Greek Mathematics.” In Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering for Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue et al., 96–110. New York: Norton, 1966.

“The Troping Hypothesis.” Musical Quarterly 52 (1966): 183–203.

“Some Ninth-Century Sequences.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 20 (1967): 67–402

“A New Source for Medieval Music Theory.” Acta Musicologica 34 (1967): 161–71.

“Some Thoughts on the Shape of Music.” Current Musicology 5 (1967): 50–56.

“Perché Zarlino diede una nuova numerazione ai modi?” Rivista italiana di musicologia 3 (1968): 48–58.

“The Sequence.” In Gattungen der Musik in Einzeldarstellungen: Gedenkschrift Leo Schrade, ed. Wulf Arlt and Higini Anglès, 502–45. Bern: Francke, 1970.

“Hermann’s Major Sixth.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 25 (1972): 19–37.

“The Early Frankish Sequence: A New Historical Form.” Viator 6 (1975): 341–51.

“Un Canto de Ugarit.” Talea 1 (1975): 86–122.

“Early Crusade Songs.” In The Holy War, ed. Thomas Patrick Murphy, 78–98. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976.

“Viewpoint.” 19th-Century Music 1 (1977): 182–85.

“Remarks on the Tuning Text UET VII 74 (U. /80).” Orientalia 47 (1978): 99–104.

“Alphabetic Notations for Early Music.” In Literature, Liturgy, and Legend: Festschrift for Charles W. Jones, ed. Margot H. King and Wesley M. Stevens, 79–104. Collegeville, MN: Saint John’s Abbey and University, 1979.

Various articles on medieval music for The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th edition, ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. “Agnus dei” (1:157); “Gloria in excelsis” (7:250–2); “Kyrie”   (10:331–3); “Mass,” sections 2 and 3 (11:774); “Notker” (13:428); “Prosa” (15:308); “Sanctus” (16:464–65); “Sequence (i)” (17:141–51); “Sequentia” (17:156).

(with A. D. Kilmer), “The Fragmentary Music Text from Nippur.” Iraq 46 (1984): 81–85.

“Matins Antiphons at St. Denis.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 39 (1986): 441–90.

“Rhythm in Early Polyphony.” In Studies in Medieval Music: Festschrift for Ernest H. Sanders, ed. Peter Lefferts and Brian Seirup = Current Musicology 45–47 (1988–89): 147–77.

“Two Recent Editions of Aquitanian Polyphony.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 3 (1994): 57–101. (Review Article of Theodore Karp, The Polyphony of St. Martial and Santiago de Compostela [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992] and Hendrik van der Werf, The Oldest Extant Part Music and the Origin of Western Polyphony [Rochester: Published by the author]).

“Thoughts on Responsories.” In Essays on Medieval Music in Honor of David G. Hughes, ed. Graeme M. Boone, 77–86. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

“Carolingian Chant: Roman, Frankish-Roman, Frankish.” In The Gentle Voices of Teachers: Aspects of Learning in the Carolingian Age, ed. Richard E. Sullivan, 142–70. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 1995.

“Gregorian Studies in the Twenty-First Century.” Plainsong and Medieval Music 4 (1995): 33–86.

“Chant for the Masses.” In Gregorian Chant: Songs of the Spirit, ed. Huston Smith, 100–19. San Francisco: KQED Books, 1996.

“Mesopotamian Tonal Systems.” Iraq 59 (1997): 189–202.

“Singing the Nuance in Communion Antiphons.” In Western Plainchant in the First Millennium: Studies in the Medieval Liturgy and its Music, ed. Sean Gallagher, James Haar, John Nádas, and Timothy Striplin, 453–60. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003.

“No Polyphony before A.D. 900!” In Strings and Threads: A Celebration of the Work of Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, ed. Wolfgang Heimpel and Gabriella Frantz-Szabó, 45–58. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.


Luther A. Dittmer. The Worcester Fragments: A Catalogue Raisonné and Transcription. Musicological Studies and Documents 2. American Institute of Musicology, 1957. In Journal of the American Musicological Society 12 (1959): 71–64.

Hans Joachim Moser. Die Tonsprachen des Abendlandes. Berlin: Verlag Merseburger, 1960. In Journal of the American Musicological Society 15 (1962): 99–102.

Edward E. Lowinsky. Tonality and Atonality in Sixteenth-Century Music. University of California Press, 1961. In Journal of Music Theory 6 (1962): 142–53.

Edward A. Lippman. Musical Thought in Ancient Greece. Columbia University Press, 1964. In Musical Quarterly 51 (1965): 432–36.

Sound Recording. Deller Consort. Music of Medieval France, 1200–1400, Sacred and Secular. Vanguard BG-656. In Musical Quarterly 52 (1965): 571–75.

N. de Goede. The Utrecht Prosarium. Monumenta Musica Neerlandica 6. Amsterdam, 1965. In Musical Quarterly 52 (1966): 521–27.

Michel Huglo. Les Tonaires: Inventaire, Analyse, Comparaison. Paris: Société Française de Musicologie, 1971. In Journal of the American Musicological Society 26 (1973): 490–95.

John Stevens. Words and Music in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press, 1986. In Music & Letters 68 (1987): 364–66.

Gunilla Bjorkvall, ed. Les Deux Tropaires d’Apt, MSS 17 et 18. Corpus Troporum 5. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 1986; Ritva Jacobsson, ed. Pax et Sapientia: Studies in Text and Music of Liturgical Tropes and Sequences in Memory of Gordon Anderson. Supplement to Corpus Troporum. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 1986; and Eva Odelman, ed. Prosules de la Messe 2: Les Prosules limousines de Wolfenbüttel. Édition critique des prosules d’Alleluia du manuscrit Wölfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek Cod. Guelf. 79. Gud. Lat. Corpus Troporum 6. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 1986. In Theological Studies 49 (1988): 533–35.

Anne Walters Robertson. The Service Books of the Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. In Speculum 69 (1992): 244–45.

David Hiley. Western Plainchant: A Handbook. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. In Speculum 70 (1995): 387–89.

David Hiley. Missale Carnotense (Chartres Codex 520). [Facsimile edition.] Monumenta Monodica Medii Aevi 4. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1992. In Music Library Association Notes 50 (1994): 1568–70.

Alejandro Enrique Planchart. Beneventanum Troporum Corpus I. Madison: A-R Editions, 1994. In Speculum 71 (1996): 756–58.

Raymond Erickson. Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis. Music Theory Translation Series. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. In Music Library Association Notes 53 (1996): 60–61.

John Haines, Medieval Song in Romance Languages. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. In Music Library Association Notes 68 (2011): 335–37.

David Hiley, Gregorian Chant. Cambridge Introductions to Music. Cambridge University Press, 2009. In Music & Letters 92 (2011): 633–36.

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